Version 1.2 - Copyright 2002-2003 Michael F. Cole.
This analysis of the Zodiac case is intended for people who
are familiar with the facts of the case.There are a number of resources which are dedicated to the general facts
of the Zodiac case.What follows focuses on new interpretations
of existing evidence.I do little
to explain or review general facts that are documented elsewhere.
This analysis reinterprets existing evidence in the Zodiac
case.The main claim of the Radian
Theory is re-examined and determined to be correct in terms of the importance
of the identified angle but incorrect with respect to detail. Two new theories
regarding the methodologies used by the killer are proposed: the Zodiac Circle
Theory and the Quadrants of Method Theory.
No attempt is made to prove or disprove the guilt of any
particular suspect.The intent is solely
objective analysis of the evidence.
In 1980, Penn made what some people have considered to be a
significant discovery in the Zodiac case: an angle ofapproximately 1 radian (360/2π or ~
57.296°) connects the Blue-Rock Springs crime scene with the Stine murder scene
when the vertex of the angle is placed on the peak of Mt. Diablo.
The evidence in the case strongly supports the conclusion
that the angle in question is significant and that the crime scenes (or at
least one of them) were chosen with the intent of forming the given angle.However, the evidence further suggests that
the angle in question was not constructed as an approximation of one radian but
rather an approximation of 60°.
Before delving into the relative merits of particular
conclusions, it's appropriate to say a few words about radians themselves in
order to insure the proper context exists for the discussion.
A radian is a unit of angular measure.Degrees and radians are equivalent, but not
equal, units.Similar to feet and
meters, anything that can be expressed in terms of degrees can also be
expressed in terms of radians, and vice versa.There are 360 degrees in a circle. Similarly there are 2π radians
in a circle.Therefore, one radian is
equivalent to 360/2π degrees; one degree is equivalent to 2π/360
Let's first examine the evidence that is offered in support
of the one-radian conclusion.The Zodiac
definitely wrote the following postscript:
"The Mt.Diablo code concerns radians + #
inches along the radians."
Apparently, this postscript was misquoted for several years as
roughly the following:
"You will find something
interesting if you place a radian angle on Mt. Diablo."
Had the latter, inaccurate, quote been correct, it would
have been compelling evidence that the angle in question is indeed 1 radian.However, the accurate quote provides weak support
for the conclusion.
Since radians and degrees are equivalent units, one exercise
that can provide insight into a given interpretation is to replace the word
"radians" with the more familiar "degrees".If the concept makes sense for radians, it
will likely make sense for degrees.Since
most of us deal with degrees on a regular basis, we will likely have better
intuition when considering the concept with respect to degrees.Making the substitution:
"The Mt.Diablo code concerns degrees + #
inches along the degrees."
I sincerely doubt that many people would read this quote and
conclude that the author is somehow referring to an angle of one degree.So why does it make sense to take the
original quote and conclude it somehow refers to an angle of one radian?Admittedly, one radian is a more substantial
angle than one degree.But this fact
does not make the conclusion any more logical.
Apart from the above-mentioned single-sentence postscript,
there is no additional direct evidence of which I am aware that supports the
conclusion that the angle in question was intended to be an approximation of
one radian.There is circumstantial
evidence that exists in the form of people claiming the existence of one-radian
angles with respect to other geographic details of the Zodiac case.However, without additional supporting
evidence, I give little weight to these claims.
As an engineer, I'm comfortable with radians.After reviewing the evidence and the context
of the quote, it is my opinion that the killer's use of the term radians has no special meaning.In other words, it is merely intended to
communicate the generalized notion of angular measure.
Another interesting point about radians that arguably
strengthens this position is the following.The vast majority of the time one uses radians as a unit of measure, the
angles involved are a fraction (possibly improper) of π, e.g. π/6, π/4,
π/3, π/2, π, etc.Rarely
does one encounter whole-number multiples of one radian.
Having said that, the choice of the term radians may possibly have been a
carefully calculated move on the part of the Zodiac.Although it's not clear whether the Zodiac
deserves credit, just look at the result of him having used the term radians
instead of degrees.Since Penn’s
discovery in 1980, there has been a significant focus on the arguably
unfamiliar unit.This clearly has
diverted time, effort and focus away from other aspects of the case, including
angles considered unrelated to radians.Numerous people have spent substantial amounts of time looking for
one-radian angles throughout the geographic details of the case.
I believe the Zodiac killer intended to provide significant
and meaningful clues regarding his methodologies and identity.I further believe he intended to obfuscate
the meaning of his clues.Whether
intentional or not, the use of the term radians
was a significant contribution towards the end of obfuscation.
The case for the sixty-degree angle is made by the multiple
interpretations of the evidence that fit within the Zodiac Circle Theory.Additionally, it is bolstered implicitly by
the degree to which the Quadrants of Method Theory appears to be valid.Both of these theories are detailed in the
sections that follow.
This theory asserts that the Zodiac killer used a zodiac
circle, a circle segmented into 12 equal 30-degree slices, as part of his
interpretations of the evidence are consistent with this assertion.Each interpretation will be discussed in
On the Phillip's 66 map of
the Bay Area that the Zodiac killer sent to the San Francisco Chronicle, the
killer drew a crossed circle centered on the peak
of Mt. Diablo with the axes
numbered 0, 3, 6, & 9.The addition
of the numbers to what is otherwise recognized as the Zodiac symbol provides
some clear implied meaning.The
implication is that there are 8 vectors not shown in the figure.The total vector count is therefore 12 with
the vectors being numbered 0 through 11.Without a compelling reason to believe
otherwise, it is reasonable to assume the vectors are to be spaced
consistently, especially given the fact that the shown, numbered vectors are
consistently spaced.The resulting
figure is shown below.It consists of
one vector every 30 degrees.
Those familiar with astrology
will recognize that the above circle as a Zodiac circle.This type of circle is often used to
represent the signs of the zodiac and their relative positioning.It consists of a circle divided into 12 equal
segments, one for each of the signs of the zodiac.
Another aspect of the evidence that strengthens the case for
the Zodiac-Circle Theory is the name: The Zodiac.Remember neither the police nor the media
came up with the name.The killer
himself chose it.He apparently felt
that the name was somehow meaningful with respect to his identity as a
killer.The killer could have chosen any
word or phrase in the English language.He chose The Zodiac.This is something that should not be taken
An exercise that potentially provides insight into the significance
of the name is simply to look up the word “Zodiac” in the dictionary.The following definition is taken from the
Merriam-Webster online dictionary:
"an imaginary band in the heavens centered on
the ecliptic that encompasses the apparent paths of all the planets except
Pluto and is divided into 12 constellations or signs each taken for
astrological purposes to extend 30 degrees of longitude."
The described band itself is circular. Thus, the
self-assigned name of the killer can be represented by a circle divided into
12, equal 30-degree segments.
The Zodiac letter sent on November 9, 1969
concluded with a large Zodiac symbol where X's had been placed at various
locations along the circle.
If one looks closely at this drawing, tick marks easily can
be seen on the circle.Anyone who has
spent time graphing functions in a trigonometry or calculus class will
recognize these ticks as an estimation of 30-degree intervals.
For simplicity of reference, I will refer to the 30-degree
locations on the circle as positions 0, 1, 2, 3, etc. (analogous to the
Phillips 66 map).
Many have theorized that at least a subset of the X's on the
Zodiac signature correspond to geographic locations of crime scenes when the
signature is placed on a sufficiently-scaled map of the Bay Area with the cross
centered on Mt. Diablo.Any two X's on
alternate ticks form an angle of 60 degrees which is approximately consistent
with the positioning of the Blue-Rock Springs/Stine murder scenes.Such pairs exist at the following positions:
6/8, 8/10, 9/11.In the following, I
will develop a theory that the X's in the 8, 10, & 11 positions correspond
to the Stine, Vallejo, and Lake Berryessa murder
At this point it is worth noting that if one buys into the
idea that two of the five X's on the X’ed Zodiac
signature correspond to the Blue-Rock-Springs/Stine murder scenes, then the
angle in question is quite likely not 1 radian.There are clearly 12 dividing points on the circle.The is no good way to get 1 radian between
two of the dividing points without having inconsistent spacing for the
remaining dividing points.For example,
are we to conclude some of the divisions are 0.5 radians, some are slightly
less than 0.5 radians and the rest are slightly more than 0.5 radians?Such a conclusion is illogical.The most logical conclusion is that the
intervals are a consistent 30 degrees or π/6 radians and the angle
separating the Blue-Rock-Springs/Stine murder scenes is 60 degrees.
The single instruction included on the Phillips 66 map was:
"0 is to be set to Mag. N.".Clearly "Mag.
N." is short for "Magnetic North”. Interestingly, I've found relatively little
discussion of this curious instruction
As many people know, magnetic north is the direction the
"north" needle of a compass will point.The exact direction magnetic north represents
is determined by the earths magnetic fields.Furthermore, the direction changes over time and geographic location.
The angle between true north and magnetic north is known as
"magnetic declination".Therefore, reconciling magnetic north and true north usually involves
knowing the magnetic declination.Fortunately, the internet provides all the
resources needed to accurately estimate magnetic declination for the San
Francisco Bay Area during the Zodiac era.Doing so, we find
that magnetic north is approximately 17° E of true north.
This means that the angle formed between true north and
magnetic north is 17°, with the magnetic north vector projecting east of true
north.Graphically, this looks like:
We now have enough information to perform the actions that I
believe the Zodiac killer was attempting to communicate.First, we take a circle with a vector every
Next, we place the circle on a sufficiently scaled map of
the Bay Area.The circle is centered on
the peak of Mt.
Diablo as shown on the Phillips 66 map.Initially, we align the 0 position with map north.Next we rotate the zodiac circle clockwise
(east) 17 degrees.This aligns the 0
position with magnetic north. From here on, I will refer to such a positioned
circle as a Rotated Zodiac Circle (an
example is shown below).After
performing these steps we find that the 60 degree angle formed by the 8 and 10
positions (both of which were X’ed on the X’ed Zodiac signature) align well with the Blue-Rock-Springs/Stine
Let's consider the aspects of the case over which the Zodiac
killer had control.Clearly, the
direction represented by magnetic north was outside of his control.The precise locations of the Lake
Herman Road, Blue Rock Springs and LakeBerryessa
crime scenes were likely at least a partial compromise in that the victims came
to the respective crime scenes of their own accord.The Stine murder scene, however, was likely
located precisely where the Zodiac killer intended.This is important because we can infer from
this crime scene location precisely how the Zodiac killer chose to align his Rotated
Zodiac Circle.In other words, the location of the crime scene allows us to calibrate
or zero the rotation of the Zodiac Circle
and in so doing determine the effective value of magnetic declination (magnetic
north) used by the Zodiac killer.
By aligning the Rotated Zodiac
Circle exactly with the Stine murder scene, I
calculate the effective magnetic declination to be approximately 18.95° E.This is slightly more than the estimated
16.85° E that we arrived at above.However, considering the constraints involved, this is a completely
reasonable value.For example, possible
sources of inaccuracy in the magnetic declination include:
·Compass inaccuracy (in the case that magnetic
declination was measured).
Additionally, the Zodiac had to reconcile two constraints
over which he had absolutely no control: the exact value of magnetic declination
and the geographic location of the lover's-lane areas where his preferred type
of victims were known to frequent.It
seems reasonable that the easiest way to reconcile these two constraints was to
accept a small amount of inaccuracy with regard to the magnetic declination.
In my opinion, the very fact that the Zodiac provided a
murder scene that arguably can be used to calibrate the Rotated
Zodiac Circle may indicate that the killer was
aware his effective value of magnetic declination was slightly inaccurate.
In the previous sections we have followed instructions
directly given by the Zodiac killer and in so doing convincingly interpreted
other evidence also directly given by the killer.This is compelling evidence that the theory
is valid and the angle formed by Blue Rock Springs/Stine murder scenes is 60°
and not 1 radian.
While the Lake Herman Road, Blue Rock Springs, and Stine
murder scenes align relativelywell
along the vectors of the Rotated Zodiac Circle, the Lake Berryessa
murder scene does not.The latter murder
scene is slightly west of vector 11.
Yet, the X'ed Zodiac Signature
does have an X in the 11 position.I
believe this X does represent the LakeBerryessa
murder scene.Why this murder scene was
not chosen to align more precisely is unclear.Below are some thoughts on possible reasons why this might be the case,
but none of them are supported well enough to be considered compelling.
Murdering someone with a knife is a much more difficult task
than murdering someone with a gun.It
may be that this fact forced the Zodiac to be more flexible in choosing the location of his attack.Also, his preferred type of victim, young
couples, may have required some degree of flexibility.
At the time the Zodiac committed the LakeBerryessa
attack, he already may have been planning what would later become the Stine
murder (the latter attack happened only 14 days later).The Zodiac may have felt that the Blue Rock
Springs/Stine murder scenes (the ones that align precisely along the 8 and 10
vectors) would be sufficient data for investigators to infer the Zodiac
circle.Therefore, he may not have felt
compelled to align the Lake Berryessa crime scene
precisely.In fact, it's possible that
the LakeBerryessa crime scene
location was chosen to convey some other piece of information regarding the
Zodiac's methodology (one such possibility is explored in the Quadrants of
It's always possible that the Zodiac killer simply made a
mistake when choosing the Lake Berryessa crime
scene.Of the four definite Zodiac
murder scenes, Lake Berryessa was the furthest away
from Mt. Diablo.Furthermore, Lake Berryessa does not even appear on the Phillips 66 map sent
by the Zodiac.Of the various
explanations, this one is the least satisfying.Nonetheless, it is a possibility.
Whatever the reason actually was, the evidence surrounding
the three murder scenes that are consistent with the Zodiac
Circle theory is just too compelling to dismiss it
on account of LakeBerryessa alone.
Kathleen Johns was likely abducted by the Zodiac killer.Johns reported that the abduction started on
Highway 132.Vector 3 of the Rotated
Zodiac Circle passes through Highway 132 near Modesto.This fact appears to bolster both the case
that Kathleen Johns was indeed abducted by the Zodiac killer and the case that
the Zodiac Circle Theory is valid.
the location of the Cheri Jo Bates murder, aligns relatively well (given the
distance) with vector 4 of the Rotated Zodiac Circle.
This location is unaccounted for on the X'ed Zodiac
signature.These facts support the
following, relatively weak claim.If the
Zodiac did murder Cheri Jo Bates, he appears to have done so prior to settling
on the methodology he used as the Zodiac killer in the Bay Area.
3.9.4Robert Domingos and
The location of this couple’s murder falls between vectors 4
and 5 of the Rotated Zodiac Circle.Again, both of these positions are
unaccounted for on the X’ed Zodiac signature.Therefore, the same weak claim of the
previous section is applicable in this instance.
The four definite Zodiac attacks account for three of the
five X's on the X'ed Zodiac signature.What about the other two?While one can conceive of a number of reasons
why these two X's may have been added (actual murders, gamesmanship, bus-bomb
location, etc.), I believe that the most probable reason is simply that their
presence obfuscates correct alignment of the Zodiac Circle.
If the extra two X's, located in the 6 and 9 positions, are
removed from the X'ed Zodiac signature, the alignment
of the Zodiac Circle, when placed on Mt. Diablo, would be obvious because there
would be exactly one pair of X’s separated by 60 degrees (the angle I claim
separates the precisely-aligned crime scenes).By adding the additional two X's, there are three different rotations of
the Zodiac Circle that
correctly position X's along these vectors.
The Mt. Diablo postscript also refers to: "... # inches
along the radians."While this must
be significant, I have to date found no meaning involving linear distance and
the known crime scenes.While I would
not be surprised to learn there is some meaning that currently is being
overlooked, it is also worth noting that the clue may not be inferable from the
known data.That is, the
as-of-yet-unbroken cryptogram may explicitly reference inches.For example, the code may say something like:
"Three inches along vector 7" (this example is intended to describe
possible conceptual content of the cryptogram; it is not intended to adhere to
any other characteristics of the cryptogram).
The Quadrants of Method Theory proposes that the primary
weapon used in the attacks committed by the Zodiac killer may have been chosen
based on where the attack happened with respect to the Rotated
Zodiac Circle.The theory is supported by the evidence in the Zodiac case, albeit less
convincingly than the Zodiac Circle Theory.
After committing the Lake Berryessa
stabbings, the Zodiac took the time to write the following on Bryan Hartnell's car door.
A major curiosity of mine is why the Zodiac would bother to
write "by knife"?Any two
sentence summary of the crime would include, either explicitly or implicitly,
the type of weapon used in the assault.Why mention the obvious?What
purpose did it serve?It seems highly
probable that the Zodiac predetermined what he would write at the scene of the
crime.Of all the things he could say,
why include "by knife"?I
think the answer is the following.The
Zodiac was trying to draw attention to the type of murder weapon used.He was trying to point out that the method of
attack was not only different in this case, but somehow meaningful.The meaning?My claim is that there was something in the Zodiac’s methodology that
indicated the assault should be committed “by knife”.
If one examines the other evidence in the Zodiac case paying
particular attention to weapons, one piece of evidence stands out: the
Halloween card.This card enumerates
four different methods of murder: by knife, by gun, by fire, and by rope.The interesting thing about this card is the
way in which the different methods are shown.Each is put into its own corner of the card. Each corner is separated by
a part of a cross that is formed by the intersecting words Paradice and Slaves.The cross is a key component of the Zodiac symbol, which was described
earlier as a subset of the Zodiac Circle.I claim that the intent of this card is to
communicate that the Rotated Zodiac Circle
is being divided into "quadrants" and that the Zodiac is intending to
use a different method of attack in each quadrant.
Yet another interesting aspect of this Halloween card is
that the Zodiac included the phrase "sorry no cypher"
written twice, in the form of a cross, on the inside of the envelope
(arguably rotated ~15° off center).This
could be interpreted as yet another attempt to draw attention to the
significance of the cross symbol.
In all, this single piece of correspondence includes two
crosses and four explicit references to method of attack.It seems to me that the Zodiac, at the time
he sent this card, was becoming increasingly desperate in terms of wanting to
We can map the given quadrants
onto the Zodiac circle based on our knowledge of definite attacks perpetrated
by the Zodiac.Given that the vectors of
the circle occur every 30°, it takes three consecutive vectors to form a quadrant. Further given that the 8 and 10 vectors align
precisely with crime scenes that were known to be committed with a gun, the
quadrant that includes the vectors 8, 9, & 10 clearly maps to "by
gun".Vector 11 corresponds to the LakeBerryessa
murder which, of course, was explicitly labeled as "by knife".This means the 11-0-1 quadrant maps to "by
At this point, our list of definite Zodiac victims is
exhausted.However, the Kathleen Johns
incident provides some potential insight.Recall that the incident took place near the 4 vector.This vector corresponds to the 2-3-4
quadrant, for which we have not accounted.
What we know about this incident is that the Zodiac ended up
setting fire to Kathleen Johns’ car
(assuming the perpetrator was in fact the Zodiac).Furthermore, he made a point of explicitly
telling police that he set fire to the car.While one could argue that he did this in an attempt to provide a detail
that arguably was not well known outside of law enforcement, I believe there is
a reasonable probability that the real intent was to provide another data point by explicitly providing the
method of attack that should be associated with the geographic location of the
Although I do not know it for a fact, I suspect that an
accelerant, such as gasoline, was used when Kathleen Johns’ car was
torched.If this is true it would
indicate a likely degree of premeditation and strengthen the case that the
Zodiac was intending to use fire as his weapon of choice in this particular
Assuming one buys into the idea that the Kathleen Johns’
incident represents a fire data point, by process of elimination the rope quadrant must correspond to the 5-6-7 quadrant. At this point, we have accounted for all
vectors. Determining precisely where one quadrant transitions to the next is
basically impossible given our limited data.However, the Lake Berryessa crime scene yields
some insight.The crime scene falls
between the 10 and 11 vectors.However,
the Zodiac associates the location with the 11 vector.Therefore, the quadrant must transition from gun to knife somewhere between vector 10 and the vector that aligns with
the LakeBerryessa crime scene.One could even argue that the Zodiac chose
the LakeBerryessa crime scene
location to provide information about the delineation of the quadrants (while
logical, there’s not much evidence to support this conclusion).
Pulling these ideas together, one possible layout of the
quadrants is the following.
The mapping of the quadrants to the Zodiac circle is not
consistent with the layout on the Halloween card.This could be construed as a shortcoming of
the Quadrants of Method theory.However,
one could also argue that the Zodiac may have been trying to avoid being too
obvious in his clues.
The above mapping is arguably regular; although it's not as
satisfying as it would have been had it mapped exactly as given on the
Halloween card and further aligned with the vertical and horizontal axes of the
Zodiac Circle.However, there is a practical advantage to
the mapping.Of the four described
murder weapons, the gun is the safest to use.It is capable of inflicting fatal wounds quickly and enables the murder
to keep a safe distance from his/her victims.Therefore, it is understandable that the Zodiac would have chosen the
gun quadrant to align with the initial murder scenes near Lake Herman and the
most populous section of the Zodiac circle, the one including San Francisco.
For some time the Zodiac killer claimed to be contemplating
using a bomb to blow up a school bus.Obviously, a bomb does not fit perfectly within the framework of the
enumerated methods of murder.Arguably, fire would be a best fit.
Unlike most people doing non-trivial analysis of the Zodiac
case, I have no suspect to put forth.What’s clear, assuming the foregoing is valid, is that the Zodiac invested
a large amount of time and effort into the process and methodology surrounding
his murders and attacks.Each of the
Zodiac’s crimes appears to serve an ulterior purpose when considered against
the backdrop of his methodology.This
“depth of purpose” creates a dimension of the Zodiac that is noticeably lacking
with most suspects.
For this reason, it is my belief the Zodiac is/was most
likely someone other than one of the most commonly suggested suspects.
An interesting aspect of the evidence in the Zodiac case is
that there is just enough information to infer the Quadrants of Method theory.Without the Kathleen Johns incident, we are
unable to determine which vectors correspond to by fire and which correspond to by
rope.If gun murders were not
committed on vectors 60° apart and/or the LakeBerryessa
crime was located elsewhere, there may have been ambiguity introduced into the
mapping of the quadrants.If the
Halloween card had not been sent, the association of the quadrants would have
I believe there is a reasonable probability that the Zodiac
felt compelled to act until he had provided enough evidence for law enforcement
(or whomever) to infer his quadrant mapping.Once the Kathleen Johns incident happened and the Zodiac explicitly made
the association of fire with the
crime scene, his motivation to continue may have declined, especially in light
of the fact that he had nearly been caught during the Stine murder.
5.3Kathleen Johns and Cheri Jo Bates
Both theories appear to suggest that the Zodiac was indeed
responsible for the Kathleen Johns incident.In turn, the similar modus operandi used in the Johns incident and Bates
murder (intentional sabotage followed by a good- Samaritan ruse) increases the
probability the Zodiac was Bates’ murderer as well.
If the Zodiac did in fact employ the methodology described
by the two theories, an interesting question to ask is: “When did he commit to
this methodology?”There are two
possibilities.The first is that the
Zodiac conceived of his methodology from the first murder on Lake
Herman Road.The second possibility is that the Zodiac committed some of the murders
prior to conceiving of the framework in which he would claim to operate.If this were the case, he would have had to
construct the methodology such that it could be retrofitted onto his earlier
crimes.Either way it’s clear that the
methodology was in place by the time the LakeBerryessa
attack was committed (as evidenced by the “by knife” statement).
My sense is that the entire methodology was in place from
the beginning.Not only does this
possibility explain the alignment of the Vallejo
crime scenes, but it is also consistent with the initial letters sent by the
Zodiac.Despite the fact the Zodiac did
not refer to himself as “The Zodiac” in these letters, he signed the letters
with the Zodiac symbol (the crossed circle).Since the Zodiac symbol is itself a representation of the method
quadrants and a subset of the Zodiac circle, it seems highly probable that the methodology
was in place.
This analysis of the Zodiac case has introduced two new
Circle theory asserts the Zodiac used a Zodiac
circle, a circle divided into twelve equal segments, as part of his killing
methodology.The theory further claims
that the angle formed by the Blue Rock Springs/Stine murder scenes (with Mt.
Diablo as a vertex) really was intended to be an approximation of 60° (a subset
of the Zodiac circle), not 1 radian as others suggest.
The Quadrants of Method Theory claims the Zodiac chose his
primary weapon based on the geographic location of the crime scene.Specifically, the Rotated
Zodiac Circle was divided into quadrants and each
quadrant was assigned one of the methods of attack enumerated on the Halloween
card.The evidence in the Zodiac case
provides sufficient data to infer the basic mapping of the quadrants.A possible mapping was suggested.
Fixed minor problem with radian quote.Changed “very near” to “near” when
describing the location of the Johns incident with respect to vector 4.Modified copyright statement to include
title and version.
August 10, 2003
Fixed quote: “Mag. North” to “Mag. N.”.Changed
some of the discussion of the Rotated Zodiac Circle
due to a problem I had with map north…Conclusions are still valid.Added a few words about the Santa Barbara
murders.Added a conclusion about
Kathleen Johns and Cheri Jo Bates.
~10°.I have not precisely measured this
of this argument are eerily similar to a thread that appeared on zodiackiller.com,
“Ghia Door Writing: A New Twist?” initiated by
William Baker.However, the arguments
were developed independently.This fact
suggests the general argument is logical and valid.